2005. Found in open and semiopen country, mainly in drier areas; nests colonially in burrows dug into sand banks, often river banks. animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Burton, M., R. Burton. bee eater Do Bees sting Birds? 1985. 1989. Juveniles may come back to the same colonies and nest near relatives such as parents or siblings. Distinctive, fairly common summer migrant to warmer regions, from winter grounds in Africa. 2001. Ann. having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Wing lengths average 44 cm for males and 49 cm for females. 2002. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots. Lessells, C., M. Avery. (Burton and Burton, 2002; Krebs and Avery, 1984), Montpellier snakes (Malpolon monspessulanus), ocellated lizards (Timon lepidus), and black kites (Milvus migrans) are common predators of European bee-eaters. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands. European bee-eaters have a limited repertoire, which consists of several, slight variations on a "preep" call. (Burton and Burton, 2002; Kossenko and Fry, 1998). Upper tail coverts are variable, ranging from green to blue, with most of the tail being blue. 1978. Disclaimer: Topics In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. December 17, 2010 Ecological Research, 24/2: 453-459. scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons. Journal of Animal Ecology, 54/2: 459-472. Also, the chestnut color found in adults is only green in juveniles. They are unique and beautiful birds that attract many birders and photographers. "Merops apiaster Linnaeus 1758" (On-line). in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Behavior Ecology, 5: 105-113. (Al-Ghzawi, et al., 2009), European bee-eaters are listed as a species of least concern by IUCN. They are either solitary or colonial nesters. An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders. defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement. They are considered a … In central Europe, most European bee-eaters return to their breeding range in late April or early May. Isolated pairs with equal clutch size had a higher rate of nesting success. Krebs, J., M. Avery. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. Single species occur in each of Europe, (the European bee-eater), Australia (the rainbow bee-eater) and Madagascar (the olive bee-eater, also found on mainland Africa). 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